奥克兰diploma 作业代写:接受语义外部

2018-10-07 12:15

如果我们接受语义外部性,那么我们就必须承认,我们如何定义一个术语并不是决定这个词对我们意味着什么的唯一因素。一个常见的例子是对一种熟悉的物质(如水)的考察,以及在遇到它之前它的意义是如何保持不变的。更准确地说,那些坚持语义外部性的人会把“水”看作是一个术语,在科学家发现组成水的分子之前,就把它归因于一种含有H2O化学成分的物质;然而,我们标记为“水”的这种物质的成分在某种程度上确实有助于我们的意义(DeRose 102)。对普特南来说,与世界上的事物互动是外部因素。例如,假设两个人有相同的心理状态,然后开始与化妆品相似但仍然由不同分子组成的物质相互作用。也许一个个体只与银(银)相互作用,而另一个个体只与ABC相互作用,但两者都学习“银”这个词来指代各自的物质。因此,每个人都有相同的精神状态(欲望、信仰、意志等),但他们所参考的内容不同;“silver”的意思是银,另一个是ABC。
If we were to accept semantic externalism, then we would necessarily acknowledge that how we define a term is not the sole factor in deciding what the word means to us. A common example would be the examination of a familiar substance (e.g. water) and how its meaning would remain constant even before encountering it. More precisely, those who adhere to semantic externalism would view the word “water” as a term ascribed to a substance with a chemical composition of H2O before scientists had discerned the molecules comprising it; however, the composition of this substance we had labeled “water” did, to some extent, contribute to our meaning (DeRose 102). For Putnam, interaction with things in the world represents the external factor. For example, consider two people who have the same mental states and then start interacting with substances which are cosmetically similar while still composed of different molecules. Perhaps one individual interacts exclusively with Ag (silver), and the other interacts only with ABC, but both learn the word “silver” to refer to each of their respective substances. As a result, each individual would have the same mental states (desires, beliefs, volitions, etc.), but with differing in what they reference; “silver” would mean Ag for one, and ABC for the other.