2017-03-09 13:47

昆士兰作业代写:民主政权也许是政治精英寻找共识,向民主政权铺平道路的最好例子。适用于如波兰,国家民主制度的变化,捷克共和国,乌拉圭,韩国,南非,transplacements反映了一个联合政府和反对派之间在改革者在政府内部的改革派都不在自己足够强大的鼓动政府主导的变化是变换情况下的合作。再次,政治精英之间的共识是至关重要的。亨廷顿写道:“成功的transplacements,占主导地位的群体,在政府和反对派都承认,他们不能单方面确定未来的政治制度的性质的社会”(p152亨廷顿1997)。有了这样的过渡,可能会出现一系列的抗议,罢工和镇压,似乎远离共识政治。然而在这个过程的核心是组织政府和反对派都认为谈判是结束冲突–最终这是发生了什么事情的唯一途径,再提供证据的合意的重要性在向民主过渡的精英。 在向民主过渡亨廷顿最终模型的置换。政府内部很少有改革者,实际上个人独裁者往往是最有可能的领导人。替换涉及实际推翻政府的联合努力的反对派团体。在这些情况下的共识的要求将在反对派团体之间,因为受影响的国家找到一个真空的权力到位,很少参与即将离任的独裁政权能够或愿意协助安装一个民主政权。在这些情况下的关键问题是促进对立团体之间的团结。在推翻独裁政权之前,他们可能因为摆脱政府的愿望而团结起来--一旦实现这一目标,这些团体将拥有自己的议程,并可能在未来权力分配和新政权采取的方向上被划分得很好。


Tranplacements are perhaps the best example of political elites finding a consensus to smooth the path to a democratic regime. Applicable to the changes to democratic regimes in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic, Uruguay, Korea and South Africa, transplacements reflect the cooperation between a combination of reformers within government and opposition in situations where the reformers within government are not in themselves alone powerful enough to instigate the government led change personified by transformations. Again, consensus between elements of the political elites is crucial. Huntington writes that “in successful transplacements, the dominant groups in both government and opposition recognised that they were incapable of unilaterally determining the nature of the future political system in their society” (p152 Huntington 1997). With such transitions there can be a series of protests, strikes and repression that appear far removed from the politics of consensus. However at the heart of the process are groups within both government and opposition arguing that negotiation is the only way to end the conflict – eventually this is what has happened, again providing evidence as to the importance of consensualism amongst elites in the transition to democracy.
Huntington’s final model for transition to democracy is that of replacement. Here there are few reformers within government, indeed personal dictators are often the most likely leaders. Replacements involve the actual overthrow of the government by the combined efforts of opposition groups. The requirement for consensus in these cases will be between opposition groups as affected states find a vacuum of power in place and few involved in the outgoing authoritarian regime are able or willing to assist in the installation of a democratic regime. On of the key issues in these instances is the promotion of unity between opposition groups. Prior to the overthrow of an authoritarian regime they may have been united by a desire to get rid of a government – once this has been achieved these groups will have their own agendas and may well be divided over the future distribution of power and the direction taken by the new regime.

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