2017-09-30 16:07

以前的研究表明金融援助可能会影响低收入学生升学决策。根据贝克尔(1964)认为,如果折现值(PDV)对高等教育带来的好处超过了上大学的学生获得大学教育成本的PDV。因此,政府和其他援助机构降低读大学的成本的PDV提供财务援助。金融援助支持这一理论的相关研究。戴纳斯基(2003)和戴明和戴纳斯基(2009)减少表明,财政援助1000美元,导致大约4%的大学入学率降低。研究表明,经济资助对大学生初始入学有积极影响,而经济理论对大学生资助对大学生成功的影响不大。事实证明,经济资助对在校学生的学业成功有间接的积极影响。近年来,作者如戴纳斯基(2008)分析了政府资助的择优奖学金对学生的长期成功。戴纳斯基(2008)表明,在阿肯色和格鲁吉亚增加学位完成率在每个国家奖学金简介。然而,Scott Clayton(2011)发现,获得西弗吉尼亚承诺奖学金的学生比其他学生在四年内获得学士学位的可能性要高出6.7个百分点。同样,布鲁斯和卡拉瑟斯(2011)利用ACT评分,确定田纳西的希望奖学金研究资助学生完成大学学业的影响长期资格截止。在对比戴纳斯基(2008)和Scott Clayton(2011),作者发现,几乎没有证据表明,田纳西州希望对学生是否获得学位的积极影响。
Previous research shows that financial aid may influence the college-going decisions of low income students. According to Becker(1964), if the perceived present discounted value (PDV) of the benefits of higher education exceeds the PDV of the costs of going to college the students pursue a college education. Thus, government and other aid granting agencies provide financial aid to reduce the PDV of the cost of going to college. Previous research related to financial aid support this theory. Dynarski (2003) and Deming and Dynarski( 2009) showed that reduction in financial aid by $ 1000 led to roughly 4 % reduction in college enrollment. The research literature suggests that financial aid can impact initial college enrollment positively, while economic theory is reluctant about the effect of financial aid on success of college student. Is is well proved that financial aid have an indirect positive effect on academic success for students who have already admitted in college. In recent years, authors such as Dynarski (2008) analyzed the effect of government sponsored merit based scholarship programs on student's long term success. Dynarski(2008) showed that the introduction of state merit scholarships in Arkansas and Georgia increase degree completion rate in each state. While,Scott-Clayton (2011) found that students who got West Virginia PROMISE scholarship were 6.7 percentage more likely to earn a bachelor’s degree within four years than other students. Similarly, Bruce and Carruthers (2011) exploited a cut-off in the ACT score that determines eligibility for Tennessee’s HOPE merit scholarship to examine the effect of the grant on students’ longer-term college attainment. In contrast to Dynarski (2008) and Scott-Clayton (2011), the authors found little evidence that Tennessee HOPE had a positive impact on whether students earned a degree.