2017-03-05 14:05

它开始变得清晰,试图描述一个人在类别方面的问题的一部分是,它是非常困难的,以适应的个性问题,提出给临床医生在一组有限的类别。不仅如此,它可能是积极误导。另外,有一个概念的一致性对人格障碍的分类,一些组织原则的需要。那么,对这个问题提出了什么答案呢?从创建人格障碍的分类的尝试是清楚的是,有两个基本问题:什么因素可以聚集在一起,以描述一种类型的紊乱,可能会有什么样的个体差异?这已建议许多研究人员与人格理论平行。 一个主要的概念问题,有类别,在人格理论处理的尺寸或频谱的每个性状的使用。这个想法立刻引起了多少维度问题应定位。已经有一些尝试创建一个满意的模型的尺寸结构,主要是使用因子分析。例如,克隆尼格(1994)提出了一个模型包括自我导向的三个字符的尺寸、合作和自我超越,以奖励依赖,避免伤害四个气质维度,寻求新奇和持久性。哥斯达黎加和widiger(1994)然而,批评这个模型,以及其他的变化,并应用五因素模型的主要支持者(FFM)人格维度的人格障碍。FFM是出世在性状产生了五个顶级因素分析人格心理学历史悠久。据说它的尺寸描述了每个人的性格。展示他们的一系列研究中建立起来的证据,他们展示了如何在不同的特定因素始终与大样本。例如,BPD可以看作FFM的神经质程度过高。


It is starting to become clear that part of the problem in attempting to describe a person in terms of categories is that it's very difficult to fit the personality problems that present to a clinician in a limited set of categories. Not only that, it can be positively misleading. Also, there is a need for conceptual coherence in the categorisation of personality disorders - some organising principle. What answers, then, have been proposed to this problem? What is clear from the attempt to create a classification of personality disorders is that there are two fundamental questions: what factors can be clustered together in order to describe a type of disorder and what individual differences might there be? This has suggested to many researchers parallels with personality theory.
One of the primary conceptual problems, that of having categories, is dealt with in personality theory by the use of dimensions or spectrums of each trait. This idea immediately raises the question of how many dimensions should be posited. There have been a number of attempts to create a satisfactory model with a dimensional structure, mostly using factor analysis. For example Cloninger (1994) proposed a model comprising three character dimensions of self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence, with four temperament dimensions of reward dependence, harm avoidance, novelty seeking and persistence. Costa & Widiger (1994) however, are critical of this model, as well as other variations, and are the main proponents of applying the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality dimensions to personality disorders. The FFM is born out of a long history in personality psychology of the analysis of traits that has produced five top level factors. It is claimed that its dimensions describe everyone's personality. Presenting their evidence built up in a series of studies, they show how the FFM consistently correlates particular factors across different samples. For example BPD can be seen as an excessively high level of neuroticism in the FFM.